A Bibliography of
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Afzal, Omar (1991, January). The American Media's Middle East War. The Message International: 19-20.
__________(1993, March). Media's new Shooting Targets. The Message International: 17-18.
Al-Marayati, Salam (1994, June). The Rising Tide of Hostile Stereotyping of Islam. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs: 27.
Al-Zahrani, Abdul Aziz A. (1988). U.S. Television and Press Coverage of Islam and Muslims. Doctoral dissertation, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma.
Ali, M. (1984). Western Media and the Muslim World. The Concept, v. 4 (2): 13-19.
Allen, Irving Lewis (1990). Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Red skins to WASP. News York: Bergin & Garvey.
Altheide, D (1976). Creating Reality: How TV News Distorts Events. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Asi, M.O. (1981). Arabs, Israelis and U.S. Television Networks: A Content Analysis of How ABC, CBS, and NBC Reported the News Between 1970 - 1979. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University. Dissertation Abstract International, v. 42: 893A.
Atwater, T. (1986, August). Terrorism on the Evening News: An Analysis of Coverage of the TWA Hostage Crisis on "NBC Nightly News." Paper presented to the Radio-Television Journalism Division, AEJMC 1986 Convention, Norman, Oklahoma.
Badran, A.B. (1985). Editorial Treatment of the Arab-Israeli Conflict in U.S. and European Newspapers: 1980 - 1982. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts. Dissertation Abstract International, v. 45: 3021A.
Belkaoui, J.M. (1978). Images of Arabs and Israelis in the Prestige Press: 1966 - 1974. Journalism Quarterly, v. 55: 732-733 & 799.
Berdyaev, Nicholas (1936). The Meaning of History. London: The Centenary Press, 1936: 207 - 224.
Braibanti, Ralph (1995). The Nature and Structure of the Islamic World. Chicago: International Policy and Strategy Institute: 16 - 22, 90.
Brewada, Joseph (1990, July 20). Super Powers Prepare Middle East War: Final Solution to Arab Problems. Executive Intelligence Review: 28-30.
Costanzo, William V. (1994). Reading Ollie North, in Roy F. Fox (ed.), Images in Language, Media and Mind. Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English: 108-122.
Cowell, F.R. (1952). History, Civilization and Culture. Boston: Beacon Press: 9.
Daniel, Norman (1975). The Cultural Barrier: Problems in the Exchange of Ideas. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 13-14.
Dart, John and Jimmy Allen (1994). Bridging the Gap: Religion and the News Media. Nashville: The Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University.
Esposito, John L. (1992). The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? New York: Oxford University Press.
Fox, Roy F. (ed. 1994). Images in Language, Media and Mind. Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English: x.
Gerbner, G. (1995). Forward: What's Wrong With This Picture, in Kamalipour, Yahya R. (ed.) The U.S. Media and the Middle East: Image and Perception. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press: xv.\
Gerbner, G. and Marvanx G. (1984). The Many Worlds of the World's Press, in G. Gerbner & M. Siefert eds.) World Communication: A Handbook. New York: Longman: 92-102.
Ghandour, N.H. (1985). Coverage of the Arab World and Israel in American News Magazines Between 1975 and 1981: A Comparative Content Analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Teachers College of Columbia University. Dissertation Abstract International, v. 45: 2476A.
Ghareeb, E. (1984). The Middle East in the U.S. Media. The Middle East Annual Issues and Events, v. 3: 185-210.
___________(1983). A Renewed Look at the American Coverage of the Arabs: Toward a Better Understanding, in E. Ghareeb (ed.) Split Vision, the Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media. Washington, D.C. American Arab Affairs Council: 157-194.
Haynes, J.E. (1983). Keeping Cool About Kabul: The Washington Post and The New York Times Cover the Communist Seizure of Afghanistan. World Affairs, v. 145: 369-383.
Heumann, J. (1980). U.S. Network Television: Melodrama and the Iranian Crisis. Middle East Review, v. 13: 51-55.
Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of the World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.
___________(1993). The Clash of Civilization? Foreign Affairs, v. 72, #3: 22-49.
Kern, M. (1981). The Invasion of Afghanistan: Domestic Vs. Foreign Stories, in W.C. Adams (ed.), op. cit: 106-127.
Lewis, Bernard (1990, September). The Roots of Muslim Rage. The Atlantic Monthly: 47- 60.
Malinowski, Bronislaw (1955). The Dynamics of Culture Change. New Haven: Yale University Press: 17-40.
Montagu, Ashley (ed. 1968). Man and Aggression. London: Oxford University Press: 34.
Mortimer, E. (1981). Islam and the Western Journalist. Middle East Journal, v. 35: 492- 505.
Mousa, I.S. (1984). The Arab Images in the U.S. Press. New York: Peter Lang.
Mughees-uddin (1990). Many Voices One Chorus: Framing Islam and Islamic Movements (FIS and Hamas) in the US Elite Press (The New York Times, the Washington Post and the Los Angeles Times). Paper presented at the First Conference of the North American Association of Muslim Professionals and Scholars, Chicago, April 9-11.
__________(1992). Editorial Treatment of U.S. Foreign Policy in The New York Times: The Case of Pakistan (1980-90). Paper presented to the International Communication Division of the AEJMC Convention, Montreal, Canada, August 7.
Northrop, F.S.C. (1946). The Meeting of East and West. New York: Macmillan: 296.
Oxtoby, W.G. (1980). Western Perception of Islam and the Arabs, in M.C. Hudson & R.G. Wolf (eds.) The American Media and the Arabs. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press: 3-12.
Paraschos, M. Rutherford B. (1985). Network News Coverage of Invasion of Lebanon by Israel in 1982. Journalism Quarterly, v. 62: 457-464.
Parenti, M. (1986). Inventing Reality: The Politics of Mass Media. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Perlmutter, Amos (1993, January 22). Islamic Fundamentalist Network. The Washington Times.
Rehman, Sharaf N. (1992 a, January/February). Muslim Images in American Cinema. The Minaret. 39-42.
____________(1992. b). Portrayal of the Arabs in the Western Mass Media (pp. 153- 162), in Dilnawaz A. Siddiqui and Abbas F. Alkhafaji. The Gulf War: Implications for the Global Business and Media. Apollo, Pennsylvania: Closson Press.
Said, E.W. (1981). Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books.
____________(1987). The MESA Debate: The Scholars, the Media and the Middle East. Journal of Palestine Studies, v. 16 (2): 85-104.
Shaheen, J.G. (1984). The TV Arab. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
____________(1985, November), Media Coverage of the Middle East: Perception and Foreign Policy. Annals, v. 482: 160-174.
____________(1990, August 25). Our Cultural Demon: The Ugly Arab. Des Moines Register: 7 A.
____________(1996, March/April). Disney Has Done It Again. Islamic Horizon: 38-39.
Sheler, Jeffery L. (1990, August 8). Islam in America. U.S. News & World Report: 69-71.
Sorokin, Pitirim A. (1950). Social Philosophies in an Age of Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press: 279.
Spengler, Oswald (1926). The Decline of the West. New York: Alfred Knopf, v. 1: 32.
Suleiman, M.W. (1965). An Evaluation of the Middle East News Coverage in Seven American News Magazines, July-December, 1965. Middle East Forum, v. 41: 9- 30.
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Wagner, C.H. (1973). Elite American Newspapers Opinion and the Middle East: Commitment Versus Isolation, in W.A. Beling (ed.) The East: Quest for American Policy, Albany: State University of New York Press: 306-335.
Woll, Allen L. & Randell M. Miller (1987). Ethnic and Racial Images in American Television. New York: Garland Publishing.
Wormser, Richard (1994). American Islam. New York: Walker and Company: 10.
Wright, Robin (1979). Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam. New York: Linden Press.
Zaidi, Nayyar (1991, January). Medium is the Mischief. The Message International: 25-26.
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